Friday, August 28, 2015

Brief Explanation about Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is shortly called as "OCD", which is familiar to all most all Americans compared to other nationals. Because world's largest OCD suffers can be found in America. OCD afflicts about 3.3 million adults and about 1 million children and adolescents in the U.S. The disorder usually first appears in childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood. It occurs about equally in men and women and affects people of all races and socioeconomic backgrounds. Till today nobody knows the exact cause for the development of OCD among people.

 OCD sometimes runs in families, but no one knows for sure why some people have it while others don't. Researchers have found that several parts of the brain are involved in fear and anxiety. By learning more about fear and anxiety in the brain, scientists may be able to create better treatments. Researchers are also looking for ways in which stress and environmental factors may play a role.




Everyone double checks things sometimes. For example, you might double check to make sure the stove or iron is turned off before leaving the house. But people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) feel the need to check things repeatedly, or have certain thoughts or perform routines and rituals over and over. The thoughts and rituals associated with OCD cause distress and get in the way of daily life.
The frequent upsetting thoughts are called obsessions. To try to control them, a person will feel an overwhelming urge to repeat certain rituals or behaviors called compulsions. People with OCD can't control these obsessions and compulsions. Most of the time, the rituals end up controlling them.
For example, if people are obsessed with germs or dirt, they may develop a compulsion to wash their hands over and over again. If they develop an obsession with intruders, they may lock and relock their doors many times before going to bed. Being afraid of social embarrassment may prompt people with OCD to comb their hair compulsively in front of a mirror-sometimes they get “caught” in the mirror and can’t move away from it. Performing such rituals is not pleasurable. At best, it produces temporary relief from the anxiety created by obsessive thoughts.
Other common rituals are a need to repeatedly check things, touch things (especially in a particular sequence), or count things. Some common obsessions include having frequent thoughts of violence and harming loved ones, persistently thinking about performing sexual acts the person dislikes, or having thoughts that are prohibited by religious beliefs. People with OCD may also be preoccupied with order and symmetry, have difficulty throwing things out (so they accumulate), or hoard unneeded items.
Healthy people also have rituals, such as checking to see if the stove is off several times before leaving the house. The difference is that people with OCD perform their rituals even though doing so interferes with daily life and they find the repetition distressing. Although most adults with OCD recognize that what they are doing is senseless, some adults and most children may not realize that their behavior is out of the ordinary.
Signs and Symptoms:



The symptoms of OCD, which are the obsessions and
 compulsions, may vary. Common obsessions include:
  • Fear of dirt or contamination by germs
  • Fear of causing harm to another
  • Fear of making a mistake
  • Fear of being embarrassed or behaving in a socially unacceptable manner
  • Fear of thinking evil or sinful thoughts
  • Need for order, symmetry, or exactness
  • Excessive doubt and the need for constant reassurance

Common compulsions include:
  • Repeatedly bathing, showering, or washing hands
  • Refusing to shake hands or touch doorknobs
  • Repeatedly checking things, such as locks or stoves
  • Constant counting, mentally or aloud, while performing routine tasks
  • Constantly arranging things in a certain way
  • Eating foods in a specific order
  • Being stuck on words, images or thoughts, usually disturbing, that won't go away and can interfere with sleep
  • Repeating specific words, phrases, or prayers
  • Needing to perform tasks a certain number of times
  • Collecting or hoarding items with no apparent value

Causes:



Although the exact cause of OCD is not fully understood, studies have shown that a combination of biological and environmental factors may be involved.
* Biological Factors: 
The brain is a very complex structure. It contains billions of nerve cells -- called neurons -- that must communicate and work together for the body to function normally. Neurons communicate via chemicals called neurotransmitters that stimulate the flow of information from one nerve cell to the next. At one time, it was thought that low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin was responsible for the development of OCD. Now, however, scientists think that OCD arises from problems in the pathways of the brain that link areas dealing with judgment and planning with another area that filters messages involving body movements.
In addition, there is evidence that OCD symptoms can sometimes get passed on from parents to children. This means the biological vulnerability to develop OCD may sometimes be inherited.
Studies also have found a link between a certain type of infection caused by the Streptococcus bacteria and OCD. This infection, if recurrent and untreated, may lead to the development of OCD and other disorders in children.
* Environmental Factors: 
There are environmental stress that can trigger OCD in people with a tendency toward developing the condition. Certain environmental factors may also cause a worsening of symptoms. These factors include:
  • Abuse
  • Changes in living situation
  • Illness
  • Death of a loved one
  • Work- or school-related changes or problems
  • Relationship concerns

Diagnosis and Treatment:



There is no lab test to diagnose OCD. The doctor bases his or her diagnosis on an assessment of the patient's symptoms, including how much time the person spends performing his or her ritual behaviors.OCD will not go away by itself, so it is important to seek treatment. The most effective approach to treating OCD combines medications with cognitive behavioral therapy.
* Cognitive behavioral therapy
The goal of cognitive behavioral therapy is to teach people with OCD to confront their fears and reduce anxiety without performing the ritual behaviors (called exposure therapy or exposure and response prevention therapy). Therapy also focuses on reducing the exaggerated or catastrophic thinking that often occurs in people with OCD.
* Medication therapy
Antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) like Paxil, Prozac, and Zoloft, may be helpful in treating OCD. Older drugs -- tricyclic antidepressants like Anafranil -- might also be used. Some atypical antipsychotics, such as Risperdal or Abilify, also have been shown to have value for OCD either when used alone or in combination with an SSRI.
In severe cases of OCD and in people who do not respond to medical and behavioral therapy, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) or psychosurgery may be used to treat the disorder. During ECT, a small current is passed through electrodes placed on the scalp while the patient is asleep under general anesthesia This causes a brief seizure. Repeated ECT treatments have been found to help improve OCD symptoms in some cases. A newer, surgical form of brain stimulation called deep brain stimulation (DBS) involves implanting small electrodes into brain areas that are a part of the brain circuitry associated with OCD symptoms.

1 comment:

  1. This is a very good article. I suffer from OCD myself and it can be crippling. I would love if people understood it's more than washing your hands or cleaning.

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